WHY SHOULD I SPAY OR NEUTER MY PET?
Spaying or neutering your pet can be one of the most beneficial surgeries done. Not only do you benefit from not having to deal with unwanted litters, aggressiveness, or marking behaviors, but also your pet will have reduced chances of developing mammary/ovarian and testicular cancer, and prostate disease.
WHAT AGE SHOULD I HAVE MY PET SPAYED OR NEUTERED?
Some people worry about how old an animal should be to fix them. Depending on the breed, a dog or cat will be reproductively active at about 6 months to 1 year old. It is not necessary to wait for a pet to go through their first heat. Many animals are fixed before 6 months of age, and it does not cause them excessive discomfort.  Millerstown Veterinary Associates recommends that owners have their pet spayed or neutered between 6 and 12 months of age.   Their growth development will not be impacted, and their personality does not undergo dramatic changes. Some owners feel the cost of the surgery is too expensive, and think they can watch their pet to make sure nothing ever happens. However, the chance that they can slip away at the moment you do not notice or a roaming animal comes in contact with your pet is fairly great, which leads to unwanted litters and other complications. To avoid those issues, investing in spaying/neutering will save you from future related costs that could potentially end up costing more than what undergoing the surgery would have been originally.
WILL MY ANIMAL EXPERIENCE ANY PAIN?
Millerstown Veterinary Associates administers pain medication as part of its normal anesthetic protocol.  In addition, we administer pain medication post operatively, and we will send home pain medication after surgery to minimize post-surgical discomfort. 
ARE THERE ANY COMPLICATIONS WITH ANESTHESIA?
With any surgery or procedure involving anesthesia, the risk of complications (including death) is always present especially in older animals.  However, we monitor heart rate, ECG, respiration rate, and blood oxygen during the procedure to ensure everything is going well with your pet.  In addition, we recommend pre-surgical blood work in order to make sure your pets liver and kidneys properly function.  The liver and kidneys are the 2 major organs involved with drug metabolism.  If they do not function normally, the animal may not be able to rid the body of the anesthetic, which can cause complications.  If the blood work determines problems with the liver or kidney, we may have to alter our usual protocol to make the procedure safer for your pet.